Viola Ford Fletcher, Eldest Living Tulsa Race Massacre Victim, Publishes Memoir

At 109 years old, Viola Ford Fletcher is publishing a memoir about her life in the shadow of the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre and her pursuit of truth, justice and reconciliation.

NEW YORK (AP) — Viola Ford Fletcher’s pursuit of justice continues — despite her being a centenarian.

For Fletcher, it’s been a busy couple of years; she has traveled internationallytestified before Congress and shown unwavering support for a lawsuit favoring reparations… and it has all been part of a campaign for accountability over the massacre that destroyed Tulsa, Oklahoma’s original “Black Wall Street” in 1921, when she was a young girl.

At age 109, Fletcher is publishing a memoir about the life she lived in the shadow of the Tulsa Race Massacre, after a white mob laid waste to the once-thriving Black enclave of Greenwood. The book will be published by Mocha Media Inc. and will become widely available for purchase on Aug. 15.

In a recent interview, Fletcher said fear of reprisal for speaking out had influenced years of near-silence about the incident. “Now that I’m an old lady, there’s nothing else to talk about,” Fletcher said. “We decided to do a book about it and maybe that would help.” Her memoir, “Don’t Let Them Bury My Story,” is a call to action for readers to pursue truth, justice and reconciliation no matter how long it takes. 

Written with graphic details of the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre that she witnessed at age seven, Fletcher said she hoped to preserve a narrative of events that was nearly lost to a lack of acknowledgement from mainstream historians and political leaders.

“The questions I had then remain to this day,” Fletcher writes in the book. “How could you just give a mob of violent, crazed, racist people a bunch of deadly weapons and allow them — no, encourage them — to go out and kill innocent Black folks and demolish a whole community? As it turns out, we were victims of a lie,” she writes.

Tensions between Tulsa’s Black and white residents inflamed when, on May 31, 1921, the white-owned Tulsa Tribune published a sensationalized news report of an alleged assault by a 19-year-old Black shoeshine on a 17-year-old white girl working as an elevator operator.

With the shoeshine under arrest, a Black militia gathered at a local jail to prevent a lynch mob from kidnapping and murdering him. Then, a separate violent clash between Black and white residents sparked an all-out war.

Over 18 hours, between May 31 and June 1, the enraged mob carried out a scorched-earth campaign throughout Greenwood. The death toll has been estimated to be around 300. More than 35 city blocks were leveled, an estimated 191 businesses were destroyed, and roughly 10,000 Black residents were displaced.

Fletcher writes of the bumpy ride out of town in a horse-drawn buggy, as her family escaped the chaos. She witnessed the grizzly execution of a hapless Black man, writing that his head exploded like “a watermelon dropped off the rooftop of a barn” when a shooter had also fired his shotgun at her family’s buggy.

“We passed piles of dead bodies heaped in the streets,” she writes in the book. “Some of them had their eyes open, as though they were still alive, but they weren’t.”

Victims’ descendants believed that, once the conspiracy of silence around it was pierced decades later, justice and reparations for Tulsa’s Black community would follow. However, Fletcher and two other centenarian survivors are still plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the city of Tulsa.

Ike Howard, Fletcher’s grandson and co-author of the memoir, said systemic racism has prevented Tulsa’s Black community from fully recovering from the massacre. “They want to be made whole,” Howard said. “We speak for everybody that went through a similar situation, who are not here to tell their stories.”

“You can learn a lot from ‘Don’t Let Them Bury My Story.’ And we know that history can repeat itself if you don’t correct and reconcile issues,” he added.

Fletcher notes in her memoir just how much history she has lived through — from several virus outbreaks preceding the coronavirus pandemic, to the Great Depression of 1929 and the Great Recession of 2008 to every war and international conflict of the last seven decades; she watched the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. lead the national Civil Rights Movement, seen the historic election of former President Barack Obama and witnessed the rise of the Black Lives Matter movement.

“We’re getting pretty close (to justice), but we aren’t close enough,” said massacre survivor and WWII veteran Van Ellis. “We’ve got a lot more work to do. I have to keep on battling. I’m fighting for myself and my people.”

Associated Press reporter Aaron Morrison contributed to this story. Follow him at


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